VCU Menorah Review
Current issue • Archive • Search
VCU Menorah Review Winter/Spring 2013
Number 78
For the Enrichment of Jewish Thought

Books in Brief: New and Notable

The Aleppo Codex: A True Story of Obsession, Faith, and the Pursuit of an Ancient Bible by Matti Friedman
Chapel Hill, N.C.: Algonquin Books

In an age when physical books matter less and less, here is a thrilling story about a book that meant everything. This true-life detective story unveils the journey of a sacred text the tenth-century annotated bible known as the Aleppo Codex from its hiding place in a Syrian synagogue to the newly founded state of Israel. Based on Matti Friedman’s independent research, documents kept secret for fifty years and personal interviews with key players, the book proposes a new theory of what happened when the codex left Aleppo, Syria, in the late 1940s and eventually surfaced in Jerusalem, mysteriously incomplete.

The codex provides vital keys to reading biblical texts. By recounting its history, Friedman explores the once vibrant Jewish communities in Islamic lands and follows the thread into the present, uncovering difficult truths about how the manuscript was taken to Israel and how its most important pages went missing. Along the way, he raises critical questions about who owns historical treasures and the role of myth and legend in the creation of a nation.

In God’s Shadow: Politics in the Hebrew Bible by Michael Walzer
New Haven: Yale University Press

Political theorist Michael Walzer reports his findings after decades of thinking about the politics of the Hebrew Bible. Attentive to nuance while engagingly straightforward, Walzer examines the laws, the histories, the prophecies and the wisdom of the ancient biblical writers and discusses their views on such central political questions as justice, hierarchy, war, the authority of kings and priests and the experience of exile. Because there are many biblical writers with differing views, pluralism is a central feature of biblical politics. Yet pluralism, Walzer observes, is never explicitly defended in the Bible; indeed, it couldn’t be defended since God’s word had to be as singular as God himself. Yet different political regimes are described in the biblical texts, and there are conflicting political arguments and also a recurrent anti-political argument: if you have faith in God, you have no need for strong institutions, prudent leaders or reformist policies. At the same time, however, in the books of law and prophecy, the people of Israel are called upon to overcome oppression and “let justice well up like water, righteousness like an unfailing stream.”

Sephardism: Spanish Jewish History and the Modern Literary Imagination edited by Yael Halevi-Wise
Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press

In this book, Sephardism is defined not as an expression of Sephardic identity but as a politicized literary metaphor. Since the nineteenth century, this metaphor has occurred with extraordinary frequency in works by authors from a variety of ethnicities, religions, and nationalities in Europe, the Americas, North Africa, Israel and even India.

Why have Gentile and Jewish writers and cultural figures chosen to draw upon the medieval Sephardic experience to express their concerns about dissidents and minorities in modern nations? To what extent does their use of Sephardism overlap with other politicized discourses such as orientalism, hispanism, and medievalism, which also emerged from a clash between authoritarian, progressive and romantic ideologies? This book brings a new approach to Sephardic studies by situating it at a crossroads between Jewish studies and Hispanic studies in ways that enhance our appreciation of how historical fiction and political history have shaped, and were shaped by, historical attitudes toward Jews and their representation.

Sanctuary in the Wilderness: A Critical Introduction to American Hebrew Poetry by Alan Mintz
Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press

The effort to create a serious Hebrew literature in the United States in the years around World War I is one of the best kept secrets of American Jewish history. Hebrew had been revived as a modern literary language in nineteenth-century Russia and then taken to Palestine as part of the Zionist revolution. But the overwhelming majority of Jewish emigrants from Eastern Europe settled in America, and a passionate kernel among them believed that Hebrew provided the vehicle for modernizing the Jewish people while maintaining their connection to Zion. These American Hebraists created schools, journals, newspapers, and, most of all, a high literary culture focused on producing poetry. Sanctuary in the Wilderness is a critical introduction to American Hebrew poetry, focusing on a dozen key poets. This secular poetry began with a preoccupation with the situation of the individual in a disenchanted world and then moved outward to engage American vistas and Jewish fate and hope in midcentury. American Hebrew poets hoped to be read in both Palestine and America, but were disappointed on both scores. Several moved to Israel and connected with the vital literary scene there, but most stayed and persisted in the cause of American Hebraism.

A Jewish Voice from Ottoman Salonica: The Ladino Memoir of Sa’adi besalel a-Levi, edited by Aron Rodrigue and Sarah Abrevaya Stein
Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

This book presents, for the first time, the complete text of the earliest known Ladino-language memoir, transliterated from the original script, translated into English, and introduced and explicated by the editors. The memoirist, Sa’adi Besalel a-Levi (18201903), wrote about Ottoman Jews’ daily life at a time when the long-ascendant fabric of Ottoman society was just beginning to unravel. His vivid portrayal of life in Salonica, a major port in the Ottoman Levant with a majority-Jewish population, thus provides a unique window into a way of life before it disappeared as a result of profound political and social changes and the World Wars. Sa’adi was himself a prominent journalist and publisher, one of the most significant creators of modern Sephardic print culture. He was also a rebel, accusing the Jewish leadership of Salonica of being corrupt, abusive, and fanatical; that leadership, in turn, excommunicated him from the Jewish community. The experience of excommunication pervades Sa’adi’s memoir, which documents a world that its author was himself actively involved in changing.

Pledges of Jewish Allegiance by David Ellenson and Daniel Gordis
Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press

Since the late 1700s, when the Jewish community ceased to be a semiautonomous political unit in Western Europe and the United States and individual Jews became integrated culturally, socially, and politically into broader society, questions surrounding Jewish status and identity have occupied a prominent and contentious place in Jewish legal discourse. This book examines a wide array of legal opinions written by nineteenth- and twentieth-century orthodox rabbis in Europe, the United States and Israel. It argues that these rabbis’ divergent positions based on the same legal precedents demonstrate that they were doing more than delivering legal opinions. Instead, they were crafting public policy for Jewish society in response to Jews’ social and political interactions as equals with the non-Jewish persons in whose midst they dwelled.

Pledges of Jewish Allegiance prefaces its analysis of modern opinions with a discussion of the classical Jewish sources upon which they draw.

The Oslo Idea: The Euphoria of Failure by Raphael Israeli
New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers

The idea of peace is always enchanting, for it encompasses the tranquility and serenity for which every human yearns. The nation of Israel has never known peace, but it dreams of peace. In practice, Israel navigates between the poles of war and peace, with endless middle-of the-road situations like cease-fire, truce, armistice and other temporary cessations of hostilities.

The Oslo Idea traces the roots of the current campaign to delegitimize Israel. The campaign is not linked to Israeli resistance, to the absence of an acceptable settlement between Israel and the Palestinians or to Israel’s reluctance to abandon territory. It results from a change of tactics by the Palestinian leadership. Israeli argues that these tactics have been used to exhaust, reduce and replace Israel rather than produce a compromise. Half the Palestinian people and other uncompromising Arabs and Muslims have stated that goal openly and act to achieve it.

Israeli deconstructs the immense illusion of the Oslo peace accords, which initiated the so-called “peace process.” He shows how Oslo lured a naive Israeli leadership into a trap. He shows how outside factors, bent on finding and supporting an evasive peace, have helped perpetuate the fiasco Oslo represents. He shows how Oslo’s supporters have advanced the “peace process” by coaxing and threatening Israel behind the scenes, and binding Israel alone with the Oslo commitments and their derivatives. More importantly, the author outlines and analyzes the basic and seemingly unbridgeable points of contention that remain: security, refugees, settlements, water, borders and the status of Jerusalem itself.

The Night of Broken Glass: Eyewitness Accounts of Kristallnacht, edited by Uta Gerhardt and Thomas Karlauf
Polity Press: Bristol, United Kingdom

November 9, 1938 is widely seen as a violent turning point in Nazi Germany’s assault on the Jews. An estimated 400 Jews lost their lives in the anti-Semitic pogrom and more than 30,000 were imprisoned or sent to concentration camps, where many were brutally mistreated. Thousands more fled their homelands in Germany and Austria, shocked by what they had seen, heard and experienced. What they took with them was not only the pain of saying farewell but also the memory of terrible scenes: attacks by mobs of drunken Nazis, public humiliations, burning synagogues, inhuman conditions in overcrowded prison cells and concentration camp barracks. The reactions of neighbours and passersby to these barbarities ranged from sympathy and aid to scorn, mockery, and abuse.

In 1939 the Harvard sociologist Edward Hartshorne gathered eyewitness accounts of the Kristallnacht from hundreds of Jews who had fled, but Hartshorne joined the Secret Service shortly afterwards and the accounts he gathered were forgotten until now. These eyewitness testimonies published here for the first time, with a foreword by Saul Friedlnder, the Pulitzer Prize historian and Holocaust survivor paint a harrowing picture of everyday violence in one of Europe’s darkest moments. This unique and disturbing document will be of great interest to anyone interested in modern history, Nazi Germany and the historical experience of the Jews.

Henry Ford’s War on Jews and the Legal Battle against Hate Speech by Victoria Saker Woeste
Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press

Henry Ford is remembered in American lore as the ultimate entrepreneur the man who invented assembly-line manufacturing and made automobiles affordable. Largely forgotten is his side career as a publisher of anti-Semitic propaganda. This is the story of Ford’s ownership of the Dearborn Independent, his involvement in the defamatory articles it ran, and the two Jewish lawyers, Aaron Sapiro and Louis Marshall, who each tried to stop Ford’s war. In 1927, the case of Sapiro v. Ford transfixed the nation. In order to end the embarrassing litigation, Ford apologized for the one thing he would never have lost on in court: the offense of hate speech. Using never-before-discovered evidence from archives and private family collections, this study reveals the depth of Ford’s involvement in every aspect of this case and explains why Jewish civil rights lawyers and religious leaders were deeply divided over how to handle Ford.

The State of the Jews: A Critical Appraisal by Edward Alexander
New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers

The author examines the current predicament of the Jewish people and the land of Israel, both of which still stand at the storm center of history, because Jews can never take the right to live as a natural right.

The volume comprises celebrations and attacks. Edward Alexander celebrates writers like Abba Kovner, Cynthia Ozick, Ruth Wisse and Hillel Halkin, who recognized in the foundation of Israel shortly after the destruction of European Jewry one of the few redeeming events in a century of blood and shame. He attacks Israel’s external enemies busy planners of boycotts, brazen advocates of politicide, professorial apologists for suicide bombing and also its internal enemies. These are “anti-Zionist” Jews, devotees of lost causes willfully blind to the fact that Israel’s creation was an event of biblical magnitude. Indifference to Jewish survival during World War II was the admitted moral failure of earlier American-Jewish intellectuals, but today’s “progressives” and “New Diasporists” call indifference virtue, and mistake cowardice for courage. Because the new anti-Semitism, tightening the noose around Israel’s throat, emanates mainly from liberals, Alexander analyzes both anti-Semitic and philo-Semitic strains in three prominent Victorian liberals: Thomas Arnold, his son, Matthew, and John Stuart Mill. The main body of Alexander’s book is divided generically into history, politics and literature. At a deeper level, its chapters are integrated by the book’s pervasive concern: the interconnectedness between the state of Israel and the spiritual state of contemporary Jewry.

Mossad: The Greatest Missions of the Israeli Secret Service by Michael bar-Zohar and Missim Mishal
New York: HarperCollins

The Mossad is universally recognized today as the greatest intelligence service in the world. It is also the most enigmatic one, shrouded in a thick veil of secrecy. Many of its fascinating feats are still unknown; most of its heroes remain unnamed. Here, for the first time the veil is lifted by two Israeli authors. From the famous cases the kidnapping of Eichmann from Argentina, the systematic tracking down of those responsible for the Munich Massacre to lesser-known episodes shrouded in darkness, this extraordinary book describes the dramatic, largely secret history of the Mossad, and the Israeli intelligence community. It examines the covert operations, the targeted assassinations and the paramilitary operations within and outside Israel. It also reveals the identities of the best Mossad agents and leaders, whose personal stories are interwoven with the great Mossad operations.

The Jewish Movement in the Soviet Union, edited by Yaacov Ro’i
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press

Yaacov Ro’i and his collaborators provide the first scholarly survey of one of the most successful Soviet dissident movements, one which ultimately affected and reflected the demise of a superpower’s stature.

The Jewish Movement saw hundreds of thousands of Soviet Jews leave their native country for Israel. This book grapples with the movement’s origins, its Soviet and international contexts, and its considerable achievements prior to the mass Jewish emigration of Gorbachev’s last years, about one quarter of a million Jews left the Soviet Union. The contributors, a mix of senior and junior scholars as well as movement participants, examine the influences of a wide range of contemporary events, including the victory of Israel in the 1967 war, the Soviet dissident and human rights movements, and the general malaise of Soviet society, its self-contradictory attitude toward nationalism and its underlying anti-Semitism.

The book is based on a combination of secondary research, archival work, and interviews. The epilogue by former secretary of state George P. Shultz discusses support for the Jewish movement under the Ronald Reagan administration, reactions and views by the United States as Gorbachev came to power and U.S. satisfaction of his denouement.

Demonizing the Jews: Luther and the Protestant Church in Nazi Germany by Christopher J. Probst
Bloomington: Indiana University Press

The acquiescence of the German Protestant churches in Nazi oppression and murder of Jews is well documented. In this book, Christopher J. Probst demonstrates that a significant number of German theologians and clergy made use of the 16th-century writings by Martin Luther on Jews and Judaism to reinforce the racial anti-Semitism and religious anti-Judaism already present among Protestants. Focusing on key figures, Probst’s study makes clear that a significant number of pastors, bishops and theologians of varying theological and political persuasions employed Luther’s texts with considerable effectiveness in campaigning for the creation of a “de-Judaized” form of Christianity. Probst shows that even the church most critical of Luther’s anti-Jewish writings reaffirmed the anti-Semitic stereotyping that helped justify early Nazi measures against the Jews.

Barricades and Banners: The Revolution of 1905 and the Transformation of Warsaw Jewry by Scott Ury
Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press

This book examines the intersection of urban society and modern politics among Jews in turn of the century Warsaw, Europe’s largest Jewish center at the time. By focusing on the tumultuous events surrounding the Revolution of 1905, Barricades and Banners argues that the metropolitanization of Jewish life led to a need for new forms of community and belonging, and that the ensuing search for collective and individual order gave birth to the new institutions, organizations and practices that would define modern Jewish society and politics for the remainder of the twentieth century.

The Birth of Conservative Judaism by Michael R. Cohen
New York: Columbia University Press

Solomon Schechter (1847--1915), the charismatic leader of New York’s Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS), came to America in 1902 intent on revitalizing traditional Judaism. While he advocated a return to traditional practices, Schechter articulated no clear position on divisive issues, instead preferring to focus on similarities that could unite American Jewry under a broad message. Michael R. Cohen demonstrates how Schechter, unable to implement his vision on his own, turned to his disciples, rabbinical students and alumni of JTS, to shape his movement. By mid-century, Conservative Judaism had become the largest American Jewish grouping in the United States, guided by Schechter’s disciples and their continuing efforts to embrace diversity while eschewing divisive debates.

Yet Conservative Judaism’s fluid boundaries also proved problematic for the movement, frustrating many rabbis who wanted a single platform to define their beliefs. Cohen demonstrates how a legacy of tension between diversity and boundaries now lies at the heart of Conservative Judaism’s modern struggle for relevance. His analysis explicates four key claims: that Conservative Judaism’s clergy, not its laity or Seminary, created and shaped the movement; that diversity was and still is a crucial component of the success and failure of new American religions; that the Conservative movement’s contemporary struggle for self-definition is tied to its origins and that the porous boundaries between Orthodox, Conservative and Reform Judaism reflect the complexity of the American Jewish landscape a fact that Schechter and his disciples keenly understood. Rectifying misconceptions in previous accounts of Conservative Judaism’s emergence, Cohen’s study enables a fresh encounter with a unique religious phenomenon.

Jewish Jocks: An Unorthodox Hall of Fame, edited by Franklin Foer and Marc Tracy
New York: Hachette Book Group

The essays in this book cover the most influential Jews in sports athletes, coaches, broadcasters, team owners, trainers and even statisticians (in the finite universe of Jewish jocks, they count!). Contributors include some of today’s most celebrated writers, such as New Yorker editor David Remnick; novelists Jonathan Safran Foer, Shalom Auslander and Booker Prize winner Howard Jacobson; sportswriter Buzz Bissinger; economist Larry Summers; columnist David Brooks; journalists Jane Leavy, Daniel Okrent, George Packer, David Plotz and Dahlia Lithwick; bestselling authors Stephen Dubner, David Margolick, Rich Cohen, Steven Pinker, Judith Shulevitz and Ron Rosenbaum, writing on figures like Howard Cosell, Art Shamsky, Kerri Strug, Harold Solomon, Sandy Koufax, Shirley Povitch and many more.

While the book doesn’t claim to be a comprehensive encyclopedia, it nevertheless stands on its own as a timeless collection of biographical musings, sociological riffs about assimilation, first-person reflections, and, above all, great writing on some of the most influential and unexpected pioneers in the world of sports.

The Nazi, the Painter and the Forgotten Story of the SS Road by G.H. Bennett
London: Reaktion Books

In 2006 a long-forgotten canister of film was discovered in a church in Devon, a county located in the southwestern corner of the United Kingdom. No one knew how it had gotten there, but its contents were tantalizing the grainy black and white footage showed members of the German SS and police building a road in Ukraine and Crimea in 1943. The BBC caused a sensation when it aired the footage, but the film gave few clues to the protagonists or their task.

World War II historian G. H. Bennett pieces together the story of the film and its principal characters in The Nazi, the Painter and the Forgotten Story of the SS Road. In his search for answers, Bennett unearthed an overlooked chapter of the Holocaust: a wartime German road-building project led by Walter Gieseke, the Nazi policeman who ended up running the SS task force that served the dual purpose of exterminating Jewish and other lives while laying the infrastructure for a utopian Nazi haven in the Ukraine. Bennett tells the story of the road and its builders through the experiences of Arnold Daghani, a Romanian artist who was one of the few Jewish laborers to survive the project. Daghani describes the brutal treatment he endured, as well as the beating, torture and murder of his fellow laborers by the Nazis, and his postwar efforts to bring the perpetrators to justice.

Recovering an important but lost episode in the history of World War II and the Holocaust, The Nazi, the Painter and the Forgotten Story of the SS Road is a moving, and at times, horrifying chronicle of suffering, deprivation and survival.

The Modern Guide to Judaism by Shmuley Boteach
New York: Overlook Press

What does it mean that we are spiritual beings? Can humans bring harmony to their dual spiritual and material nature and achieve success? Shmuley Boteach tackles this important issue, arguing that Judaism possesses a core of wisdom that appeals to Jews and non-Jews alike. Boteach rejects Judaism seeking piety in abstractions, or rationalizing injustice and suffering, and says that it is primarily about seeking optimism and spirituality. Comparing Judaism with other faith traditions, he also contends that Judaism is a religion with a profound earthward orientation and is uniquely suited to modern-day men and women who desire professional success without starving their souls.

New Babylonians: A History of Jews in Modern Iraq by Orit Bashkin
Stanford University Press

Although Iraqi Jews saw themselves as Iraqi patriots, their community which had existed in Iraq for more than 2,500 years was displaced following the establishment of the state of Israel. New Babylonians chronicles the lives of these Jews, their urban Arab culture and their hopes for a democratic nation-state. It studies their ideas about Judaism, Islam, secularism, modernity, and reform, focusing on Iraqi Jews who internalized narratives of Arab and Iraqi nationalisms and on those who turned to communism in the 1940s.

As the book reveals, the ultimate displacement of this community was not the result of a perpetual persecution on the part of their Iraqi compatriots, but rather the outcome of misguided state policies during the late 1940s and early 1950s. Sadly, from a dominant mood of coexistence, friendship, and partnership, the impossibility of Arab-Jewish coexistence became the prevailing narrative in the region and the dominant narrative we have come to know today.

In History’s Grip: Philip Roth’s Newark Trilogy by Michael Kimmage
Stanford University Press

Kimmage concentrates on the literature of Philip Roth, one of America’s greatest writers, and in particular on American Pastoral, I Married a Communist and The Human Stain. Each of these novels from the 1990s uses Newark, New Jersey, to explore American history and character. Each features a protagonist who grows up in and then leaves Newark, after which he is undone by a historically generated crisis. The city’s twentieth-century decline from immigrant metropolis to postindustrial disaster completes the motif of history and its terrifying power over individual destiny.

In History’s Grip is the first critical study to foreground the city of Newark as the source of Roth’s inspiration, and to scrutinize a subject Roth was accused of avoiding as a younger writer history. In so doing, the book brings together the two halves of Roth’s decades-long career: the first featuring characters who live outside of history’s grip; the second, characters entrapped in historical patterns beyond their ken and control.

The Jewish Jesus: How Judaism and Christianity Shaped Each Other by Peter Schafer
Princeton University Press

In late antiquity, as Christianity emerged from Judaism, it was not only the new religion that was being influenced by the old. The rise and revolutionary challenge of Christianity also had a profound influence on rabbinic Judaism, which was itself just emerging and, like Christianity, trying to shape its own identity. In The Jewish Jesus, Peter Schfer reveals the crucial ways in which various Jewish heresies, including Christianity, affected the development of rabbinic Judaism. He even shows that some of the ideas that the rabbis appropriated from Christianity were actually reappropriated Jewish ideas. The result is a demonstration of the deep mutual influence between the sister religions, one that calls into question hard and fast distinctions between orthodoxy and heresy, and even Judaism and Christianity, during the first centuries CE.

The First Modern Jew: Spinoza and the History of An Image by Daniel B. Schwartz
Princeton University Press

Pioneering biblical critic, theorist of democracy and legendary conflater of God and nature, Jewish philosopher Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) was excommunicated by the Sephardic Jews of Amsterdam in 1656 for his “horrible heresies” and “monstrous deeds.” Yet, over the past three centuries, Spinoza’s rupture with traditional Jewish beliefs and practices has elevated him to a prominent place in genealogies of Jewish modernity. The First Modern Jew provides a riveting look at how Spinoza went from being one of Judaism’s most notorious outcasts to one of its most celebrated (if still highly controversial) cultural icons, and a powerful and protean symbol of the first modern secular Jew.

Ranging from Amsterdam to Palestine and back again to Europe, the book chronicles Spinoza’s posthumous odyssey from marginalized heretic to hero, the exemplar of a whole host of Jewish identities, including cosmopolitan, nationalist, reformist and rejectionist. Daniel Schwartz shows that in fashioning Spinoza into “the first modern Jew,” generations of Jewish intellectuals German liberals, East European maskilim, secular Zionists and Yiddishists have projected their own dilemmas of identity onto him, reshaping the Amsterdam thinker in their own image. The many afterlives of Spinoza are a kind of looking glass into the struggles of Jewish writers over where to draw the boundaries of Jewishness and whether a secular Jewish identity is indeed possible. Cumulatively, these afterlives offer a kaleidoscopic view of modern Jewish culture and a vivid history of an obsession with Spinoza that continues to this day.

On Sacrifice by Moshe Halbertal
Princeton University Press

The idea and practice of sacrifice play a profound role in religion, ethics, and politics. In this brief book, philosopher Moshe Halbertal explores the meaning and implications of sacrifice, developing a theory of sacrifice as an offering and examining the relationship between sacrifice, ritual, violence and love. On Sacrifice also looks at the place of self-sacrifice within ethical life and at the complex role of sacrifice as both a noble and destructive political ideal.

In the religious domain, Halbertal argues, sacrifice is an offering, a gift given in the context of a hierarchical relationship. As such it is vulnerable to rejection, a trauma at the root of both ritual and violence. An offering is also an ambiguous gesture torn between a genuine expression of gratitude and love and an instrument of exchange, a tension that haunts the practice of sacrifice.

In the moral and political domains, sacrifice is tied to the idea of self-transcendence, in which an individual sacrifices his or her self-interest for the sake of higher values and commitments. While self-sacrifice has great potential moral value, it can also be used to justify the most brutal acts. Halbertal attempts to unravel the relationship between self-sacrifice and violence, arguing that misguided self-sacrifice is far more problematic than exaggerated self-love. In his exploration of the positive and negative dimensions of self-sacrifice, Halbertal also addresses the role of past sacrifice in obligating future generations and in creating a bond for political associations, and considers the function of the modern state as a sacrificial community.

|  Virginia Commonwealth University  |  College of Humanities and Sciences  |  School of World Studies  |
Center for Judiac Studies

Comments and manuscripts are welcome.
Address all correspondence to:
Center for Judaic Studies
Box 842021
312 North Shafer Street
Richmond, Virginia 23284-2021

Phone: (804) 827-0909  |  Email: jdspiro@vcu.edu

Updated: Jan. 24, 2013

Created by VCU University Relations